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~ A ~

allele

A variety of a gene.

alternate host

The host on which a rust fungus produces sexual spores.

Representative Page: #130: rusts

Related Term: rust

AM

Arbuscular Mycorrhiza.

Representative Page: #074: arbuscular mycorrhizae

Related Term: arbuscular mycorrhiza

amanitin

A type of amatoxin.

Representative Page: #091: amatoxins

Related Term: amatoxin

amatoxin

A deadly mushroom toxin found in some Amanita species as well as other lineages.

Representative Page: #091: amatoxins

Related Term: amanitin

ammonia

A solution of ammonia is used to identify mushrooms. A drop of the solution is placed on a mushroom and any color changes are observed. Ammonia is also used in wool dyeing.

Representative Page: #159: dyeing

amyloid

Staining blue when Melzer’s reagent is applied.

Related Terms: dextrinoid, inamyloid, Melzer’s reagent

anastomosis

The process of one hypha fusing to another hypha.

Representative Page: #128: anastomosis

Related Term: hypha

angular

With straight edges. Angular pores are not perfect circles but irregular polygons.

Related Term: pores

annulus

The remnants of the partial veil that hang down over the stipe. May be large and skirt-like, ring-like, or a thin ring zone. Also called a ring.

Related Terms: partial veil, ring, ring zone, stipe

anther smut

A basidiomycete plant pathogen that infects members of the pink family and makes them produce anthers with fungal spores instead of pollen.

Representative Page: #132: anther smuts

Related Terms: basidiomycete, smut, spore

apothecium

A disc-shaped structure produced by some ascomycetes that has asci lining its upper surface.

Related Terms: ascomycete, ascus

appressorium

A fungal cell specialized to penetrate the external cell wall or cuticle of an organism. Appressoria use mechanical pressure and chemicals to break through external barriors.

Related Term: haustorium

arbuscular mycorrhiza

A mycorrhiza formed by fungi in the division Glomeromycota. The mycorrhizal structures are formed inside cells of plant roots.

Representative Page: #074: arbuscular mycorrhizae

Related Terms: AM, arbuscule, division, fungus, mycorrhiza, VAM, vesicle, vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhiza

arbuscule

In AM, arbuscules are highly-branched, tree-like structures formed to facilitate nutrient exchange inside mycorrhizal plant root cells.

Representative Page: #074: arbuscular mycorrhizae

Related Terms: AM, arbuscular mycorrhiza, vesicle

arbutoid mycorrhiza

A less common type of ericaceous mycorrhiza. Arbutoid mycorrhizal fungi form a mantle, a hartig net, and penetrate root cells.

Representative Page: #077: ericaceous mycorrhizae

Related Terms: ericaceous mycorrhiza, ericoid mycorrhiza, fungus, Hartig net, mantle, monotropoid mycorrhiza, mycorrhiza

asco

Short for ascomycete.

Representative Page: #012: ascomycetes

Related Term: ascomycete

ascocarp

A fruiting body formed by ascomycetes.

Representative Page: #012: ascomycetes

Related Terms: ascomycete, fruiting body, mushroom

ascomycete

A fungus in the division Ascomycota.

Representative Page: #012: ascomycetes

Related Terms: division, fungus

ascospore

A sexual spore produced by fungi in the phylum Ascomycota.

Representative Page: #012: ascomycetes

Related Terms: ascomycete, ascus, spore

ascus

A cell that produces sexual spores internally, found only in fungi from the phylum Ascomycota. Plural: asci.

Representative Page: #012: ascomycetes

Related Terms: ascomycete, ascospore, spore

asexual reproduction

See mitosis.

Related Term: mitosis

attached

Gills that meet the stipe.

Related Terms: gills, lamellae, stipe

autotroph

An organism that produces its own energy using sunlight or chemicals.

Related Term: heterotroph

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~ B ~

ballistospore

A spore that is ejected or thrown into the air. As far as I can tell, this term is used exclusively in the basidiomycetes.

Representative Page: #013: basidiomycetes

Related Terms: basidiomycete, basidiospore, hilar droplet, spore

base

The bottom of a mushroom stipe.

Related Terms: mushroom, stipe

basidio

Short for basidiomycete.

Representative Page: #013: basidiomycetes

Related Term: basidiomycete

basidiocarp

A fruiting body formed by basidiomycetes.

Representative Page: #013: basidiomycetes

Related Terms: basidiomycete, fruiting body, mushroom

basidiomycete

A fungus in the division Basidiomycota.

Representative Page: #013: basidiomycetes

Related Terms: division, fungus

basidiospore

A sexual spore produced by fungi in the phylum Basidiomycota.

Representative Page: #013: basidiomycetes

Related Terms: basidiomycete, basidium, spore

basidium

A cell that produces sexual spores externally, found only in fungi from the phylum Basidiomycota. Plural: basidia.

Representative Page: #013: basidiomycetes

Related Terms: basidiomycete, basidiospore, spore

biofilm

A community of organisms that works together to secrete a protective layer of compounds.

Related Term: plaque

bird’s nest

A small basidiomycete mushroom with a pile of tiny circular peridioles that contain sexual spores and are dispersed through a splash cup mechanism.

Representative Page: #043: bird’s nests

Related Terms: basidiomycete, egg, mushroom, peridiole, splash cup

bolete

A fleshy terrestrial basidiomycete mushroom with a central stipe, pores that separate as a layer, and a pileus.

Representative Page: #028: boletes

Related Terms: basidiomycete, mushroom, pileus, pores, stipe, terrestrial

bracket fungus

A mushroom that juts out horizontally from a log, usually with the widest part of the mushroom directly attached to the log. Also called a shelf fungus.

Representative Page: #070: Ganoderma applanatum

Related Terms: mushroom, shelf fungus

brown rot

A type of wood rot caused by certain fungi that primarily decompose cellulose, leaving the brown, cubical lignin.

Representative Page: #088: wood rot

Related Terms: cellulose, fungus, lignin, white rot

bruising

A color change that happens when part of a mushroom is damaged. Often used interchangably with staining.

Related Terms: mushroom, staining

budding

A mechanism of asexual reproduction in yeasts whereby a smaller cell is produced on the side of a larger one. Eventually the two cells break apart and repeat the process.

Representative Page: #003: yeast vs. hyphae

Related Terms: asexual reproduction, fission, yeast

Buller’s drop

See hilar droplet.

Representative Page: #013: basidiomycetes

Related Term: hilar droplet

butt rot

Rot at the base of a tree.

Related Term: heart rot

button

A structure formed before the mushroom fruits that lays out the plan of the mushroom. For example, if you cut an Amanita button in half you will find miniature versions of the gills and stipe. Buttons generally form just under the surface of their substrate.

Related Terms: determinate growth, egg, gills, mushroom, stipe, substrate

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~ C ~

cap

See pileus.

Related Terms: mushroom, pileus

cellular slime mold

A single-celled slime mold that, when it is ready to produce spores, comes together with lots of other individuals of the same species to produce a single fruiting body.

Representative Page: #053: slime molds

Related Terms: fruiting body, slime mold

cellulose

The main comonent of cell walls of plants and other organisms. Fungi do not have cellulose cell walls. Cellulose is a white, stringy compound that is an important structural component of wood.

Representative Page: #088: wood rot

Related Terms: brown rot, chitin, lignin, white rot

chanterelle

A fleshy basidiomycete mushroom with decurrent, blunt false gills.

Representative Page: #029: chanterelles

Related Terms: basidiomycete, decurrent, false gills, mushroom

chitin

The primary carbohydrate that makes up the fungal cell wall.

Representative Page: #011: fungi

chlamydospore

A resting spore with thick walls produced by certain fungi.

Related Terms: resting spore, spore

chytrid

A fungus in the division Chytridiomycota.

Representative Page: #014: chytrids

Related Terms: division, fungus

clamp connection

A bump on the side of a hypha, produced only by certain basidiomycetes. Clamp connections are always found above septa and are a result of the highly regulated process of mitosis in those basidiomycetes.

Representative Page: #013: basidiomycetes

Related Terms: basidiomycete, hypha, mitosis, septum

climax species

A species present at the final stage of succession. Such a species will not be replaced in its community unless the environment changes.

Related Term: succession

club fungus

1) A basidiomycete, so called because of the club-shaped basidia. 2) A basidiomycete mushroom shaped like a club (a stocky base that gradually enlarges toward the somewhat irregular top). The hymenium covers the entire outer surface.

Representative Pages: #013: basidiomycetes, #038: coral fungi

Related Terms: base, basidiomycete, basidium, hymenium, mushroom

coenocytic

Having a single cytoplasm. Most fungi are coenocytic because pores in their septa link the cytoplasm of each cell to its neighbors.

Representative Page: #004: hyphae

Related Terms: fungus, hypha, septum

columella

A short, vertical, column-like segment that is not very well defined. A columella is present at the bases of certain false truffles and zygomycete sporangia.

Representative Page: #046: false truffles

Related Terms: base, false truffle, sporangium, zygomycete

commensalism

A symbiosis where both organisms are neither harmed nor benefited.

Related Terms: mutualism, parasitism, symbiosis

composite organism

An organism whose form and ability to live are dependent upon multiple species.

Representative Page: #062: lichens 1

Related Term: lichen

conidiophore

A microscopic structure that produces conidia.

Related Terms: conidium, microscopic, sporangiophore

conidium

An asexual spore produced on a conidiophore. Plural: conidia.

Related Terms: conidiophore, mitospore, spore

conjugation

The process of two yeast fusing together. This often occurs before sexual reproduction.

Related Terms: sexual reproduction, yeast

convergent evolution

The tendency of organisms exposed to similar conditions to develop similar adaptations. As an example, truffles (ascomycetes) and false truffles (basidiomycetes) both evolved subterranean fruiting bodies to conserve moisture in response to arid conditions.

Representative Page: #030: polypores

Related Terms: false truffle, fruiting body, truffle

coprine

A mushroom toxin found in some Coprinopsis species that causes symptoms if alcohol is also consumed.

Representative Page: #095: coprine

Related Term: mushroom

coral fungus

A basidiomycete mushroom that is composed of branching, roughly cylindrical segments. The hymenium covers the entire outer surface.

Representative Page: #038: coral fungi

Related Terms: basidiomycete, hymenium, mushroom

cortex

The exterior part of a lichen composed of tightly woven fungal hyphae. Primarily protects the lichen from the external world. Often differentiated into the upper and lower cortex. The photobiont cells are kept under the (upper) cortex layer.

Representative Page: #062: lichens 1

Related Terms: hypha, lichen, medulla, photobiont

cortina

A partial veil composed of cobweb-like threads, found in certain agarics (certain Cortinarius species).

Related Terms: agaric, annulus, partial veil, ring

cross-veins

Small ridges that meet gills at a roughly 90° angle and connect that gill to the adjacent gill.

Related Terms: gills, lamellae

cruciate septate basidia

Basidia produced by certain jelly fungi that are separated into four cells by septa. When viewed from above, the septa in these basidia form an X shape.

Representative Page: #048: jelly fungi

Related Terms: basidium, jelly fungus, septum, transversely septate basidia, tuning fork basidia

crust

A basidiomycete mushroom with a smooth hymenium.

Representative Page: #039: crusts

Related Terms: basidiomycete, hymenium, mushroom

crustose

A lichen that lies flat against its substrate.

Representative Page: #062: lichens 1

Related Terms: foliose, fruticose, lichen, substrate

cubical rot

See brown rot.

Representative Page: #088: wood rot

Related Term: brown rot

cup fungus

An ascomycete mushroom with the hymenium on its smooth or nearly smooth upper surface.

Representative Page: #032: cup fungi

Related Terms: ascomycete, hymenium, mushroom

cystidium

An enlarged cell found mixed in with basidia on the hymenium of certain basidiomycetes. Plural: cystidia.

Related Terms: basidiomycete, basidium, caulocystidium, cheilocystidium, hymenium, pileocystidium, pleurocystidium

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~ D ~

decurrent

Running down the stipe or substrate.

Related Terms: gills, lamellae, stipe, substrate

determinate growth

A growth pattern where the mushroom is trying to achieve a pre-defined shape. In determinate growth, the mushroom pushes debris out of the way and grows around obstacles.

Related Terms: indeterminate growth, mushroom

dextrinoid

Staining brownish when Melzer’s reagent is applied.

Related Terms: amyloid, inamyloid, Melzer’s reagent

dikaryotic

Having two nuclei (designated by “n+n”).

Representative Page: #009: fungal life cycle

Related Terms: monokaryotic, polykaryotic

diploid

An organism or cell with two sets of chromosomes. Designated by “2n”.

Related Terms: haploid, ploidy, polyploid

division

Another word for phylum. Mycologists perfer to use the word division.

dolipore septum

A septum with a central pore surrounded by a swelling and parenthosomes. Found only in certain basidiomycetes.

Representative Page: #004: hyphae

Related Terms: basidiomycete, parenthosome, septum

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~ E ~

earth tongue

An ascomycete mushroom with a stipe and a head that has a tongue-like crease running down the center.

Representative Page: #036: earth tongues

Related Terms: ascomycete, earth tongue look-alike, ETLA, mushroom, stipe

earth tongue look-alike

Any ascomycete mushroom that is roughly tubular in shape but is not an earth tongue.

Representative Page: #037: ETLAs

Related Terms: ascomycete, earth tongue, mushroom

earthball

A basidiomycete mushroom that produces spores internally. The peridium breaks apart irregularly at maturity to reveal a mass of spores. Also called a false puffball.

Representative Page: #042: earthballs

Related Terms: basidiomycete, false puffball, mushroom, peridium, puffball

earthstar

A basidiomycete mushroom with an exoperidium that splits into star-like rays to reveal a puffball-like center.

Representative Page: #044: earthstars

Related Terms: basidiomycete, exoperidium, mushroom, puffball

ECM

Ectomycorrhiza.

Representative Page: #075: ectomycorrhizae

Related Term: ectomycorrhiza

ectomycorrhiza

A mycorrhiza where the fungus forms a thick network of hyphae around mycorrhizal plant root and cells. The hyphae do not penetrate root cells, but do grow around some of them.

Representative Page: #075: ectomycorrhizae

Related Terms: ECM, EM, Hartig net, hypha, mycorrhiza

effused-reflexed

A mushroom that lies flat against its substrate on the bottom but develops a small, shelf-like pileus at the top.

Related Terms: crust, mushroom, pileus, substrate

egg

An oval-shaped mushroom or mushroom part. Egg generally refers to either a stinkhorn button or a bird’s nest peridiole.

Related Terms: bird’s nest, button, mushroom, peridiole, stinkhorn

elfin saddle

An ascomycete mushroom with a stipe and a saddle-shaped head.

Representative Page: #035: elfin saddles

Related Terms: ascomycete, false morel, mushroom, stipe

EM

Ectomycorrhiza.

Representative Page: #075: ectomycorrhizae

Related Term: ectomycorrhiza

endoperidium

In a peridium composed of multiple layers, the endoperidium is the innermost layer.

Representative Page: #044: earthstars

Related Terms: exoperidium, mesoperidium, peridium

entomopathogenic

A fungus that parasitizes insects.

Related Terms: fungus, parasitism

ericaceous mycorrhiza

A mycorrhiza formed with many plants in the order Ericales. Includes: ericoid, arbutoid, and monotropoid mycorrhizae.

Representative Page: #077: ericaceous mycorrhizae

Related Terms: arbutoid mycorrhiza, ericoid mycorrhiza, monotropoid mycorrhiza, mycorrhiza

ericoid mycorrhiza

The most common type of ericaceous mycorrhiza. Ericoid mycorrhizal fungi form a mantle and penetrate root cells.

Representative Page: #077: ericaceous mycorrhizae

Related Terms: arbutoid mycorrhiza, ericaceous mycorrhiza, mantle, monotropoid mycorrhiza, mycorrhiza

ETLA

Earth Tongue Look-Alike.

Representative Page: #037: ETLAs

Related Term: earth tongue look-alike

exoperidium

In a peridium composed of multiple layers, the exoperidium is the outermost layer.

Representative Page: #044: earthstars

Related Terms: endoperidium, mesoperidium, peridium

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~ F ~

false gills

Gill-like lamellae that come to a blunt edge (as in the chanterelles) or are found on tough to woody mushrooms (as in those related to polypores).

Representative Pages: #029: chanterelles, #168: Lenzites betulina

Related Terms: chanterelle, gills, hymenium, lamellae, mushroom

false morel

An ascomycete mushroom with a solid stipe and an enlarged head that is covered in wrinkles and is attached to the stipe only at the top.

Representative Page: #034: false morels

Related Terms: ascomycete, elfin saddle, morel, mushroom, stipe, verpa

false puffball

See earthball.

Representative Page: #042: earthballs

Related Term: earthball

false truffle

A subterranean basidiomycete mushroom that produces spores internally and spreads its spores by using scents to attract mammals.

Representative Page: #046: false truffles

Related Terms: basidiomycete, mushroom, truffle

ferrous sulfate

See iron salts.

Representative Page: #159: dyeing

Related Terms: FeSO4, iron salts

FeSO4

Ferrous sulfate.

Representative Page: #159: dyeing

Related Terms: ferrous sulfate, iron salts

fission

A mechanism of asexual reproduction in yeasts whereby a yeast cell is divided equally in half to produce two smaller yeast cells.

Representative Page: #003: yeast vs. hyphae

Related Terms: asexual reproduction, budding, yeast

flagellum

A long, thin protrusion from a cell that the cell moves to allow the cell to swim. Plural: flagella.

Representative Page: #014: chytrids

Related Term: whiplash flagellum

foliose

A lichen that produces leaf-like structures that have a top and a bottom. The algal layer is found on top of the leaf-like structures.

Representative Page: #062: lichens 1

Related Terms: crustose, fruticose, lichen

forked

A forked lamella branches at one or more points so that it has multiple ends at the margin but only one end at point of attachment.

Related Terms: lamellae, margin

foxfire

The phenomonon where a fungus causes pieces of wood to glow.

Representative Page: #008: A Glow in the Dark

free

Gills that are not attached to the stipe.

Related Terms: gills, lamellae, stipe

fruiting body

A structure that produces meiospores, such as a mushroom.

Related Terms: ascocarp, basidiocarp, meiospore, mushroom

fruticose

A lichen that produces a tree-like structure of branching, roughly cylindrical segments. The algal layer is found near the outside of all surfaces of the lichen.

Representative Page: #062: lichens 1

Related Terms: crustose, foliose, lichen

fungus

An organism classified in the kingdom Fungi. Plural: fungi.

Representative Page: #011: fungi

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~ G ~

gasteromycete

Any basidiomycete mushroom that produces spores internally. Gasteromycetes are not related to each other phylogenetically.

Related Terms: basidiomycete, bird’s nest, earthball, earthstar, false truffle, hymenomycete, mushroom, puffball, stinkhorn

gastrointestinal irritant

A mushroom toxin that causes symptoms in the gastrointestinal tract.

Representative Page: #099: gastrointestinal irritants

Related Term: mushroom

gills

Lamellae of fleshy basidiomycete mushrooms that come to a sharp edge (like a knife).

Representative Page: #027: agarics

Related Terms: agaric, basidiomycete, false gills, hymenium, lamellae, mushroom

gyromitrin

A mushroom toxin found primarily in false morels.

Representative Page: #092: gyromitrin & MMH

Related Terms: false morel, monomethylhydrazine, mushroom

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~ H ~

hand lens

A small magnifying glass, usually 8x – 20x, that mycologists use to examine specimens in the field. Also called a loupe.

Related Term: loupe

haploid

An organism or cell with one set of chromosomes. Designated by “n”.

Related Terms: diploid, ploidy, polyploid

Hartig net

A network of hyphae produced by ECM fungi around certain root cells that increases the surface area available for nutrient exchange.

Representative Page: #075: ectomycorrhizae

Related Terms: arbutoid mycorrhiza, ECM, ectomycorrhiza, hypha

haustorium

A fungal cell specialized for infecting host cells.

Related Term: appressorium

heart rot

Rot in the center of a tree.

Related Term: butt rot

heterotroph

An organism that gets its energy from organic material.

Related Terms: autotroph, mycoheterotroph, mycotroph, saprobe

hilar appendage

The (usually small) structure that attaches a basidiospore to a sterigma. Also called a hilar appendix.

Related Terms: basidiospore, hilar appendix, sterigma

hilar appendix

The (usually small) structure that attaches a basidiospore to a sterigma. Also called a hilar appendage.

Related Terms: basidiospore, hilar appendage, sterigma

hilar droplet

A small droplet that forms on the sterigma just below a basidiospore on a basidium. When the spore is mature, the droplet touches the surface of the basidiospore. This motion flings the spore away.

Representative Page: #013: basidiomycetes

Related Terms: basidiospore, basidium, sterigma

hyaline

Clear.

hygrophanous

Changing color upon drying out.

hygroscopic

Easily absorbing water from the air.

Representative Page: #042: earthballs

hymenium

The surface of a mushroom that produces sexual spores.

Related Terms: false gills, gills, mushroom, pores, spore, teeth

hypha

A cylindrical chain of fungal cells. Hyphae may or may not be divided into cells by septa. In septate hyphae, the cytoplasm of adjacent cells is connected through pores in the septa. Plural: hyphae.

Representative Page: #004: hyphae

Related Terms: coenocytic, mycelium, septate, yeast

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~ I ~

ibotenic acid

A mushroom toxin that has mild effects on the central nervous system.

Representative Page: #097: ibotenic acid & muscimol

Related Terms: muscimol, mushroom

inamyloid

Not staining when Melzer’s reagent is applied.

Related Terms: amyloid, dextrinoid, Melzer’s reagent

indeterminate growth

A growth pattern where the mushroom is not trying to achieve a pre-defined shape. In indeterminate growth, the mushroom incorporates debris and fuses to obstacles.

Related Terms: determinate growth, mushroom

inoperculate

Of asci that have a simple pore through which spores are discharged.

Representative Page: #012: ascomycetes

Related Terms: ascus, operculate

iron salts

A solution of iron salts is used to identify mushrooms. A drop of the solution is placed on a mushroom and any color changes are observed. Iron salts are also used in wool dyeing.

Representative Page: #159: dyeing

Related Terms: ferrous sulfate, FeSO4, mushroom

isidia

Short, cylindrical outgrowths of a lichen that are designed to break away so that the lichen can spread to new areas. Isidia contain both photobiont and mycobiont cells.

Representative Page: #062: lichens 1

Related Terms: lichen, mycobiont, photobiont, soredia

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~ J ~

jelly fungus

A basidiomycete mushroom that is gelatinous in texture.

Representative Page: #048: jelly fungi

Related Terms: basidiomycete, cruciate septate basidia, mushroom, transversely septate basidia, tuning fork basidia

KOH

Potassium hydroxide.

Related Term: potassium hydroxide

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~ K ~

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~ L ~

lamellae

Lamellae are flat plates of hymenium tissue that are are found in certain basidiomycetes. Lamellae radiate out from the point of attachment to the substrate or stipe and are oriented perpendicular to the ground to allow spores to drop down into the air below. Also called gills.

Representative Page: #027: agarics

Related Terms: agaric, basidiomycete, false gills, gills, hymenium, stipe, substrate

lamellula

A lamella that is shorter than normal and does not extend all the way to the stipe or point of attachment. Also called short-gills.

Related Terms: gills, lamellae, short-gill, stipe

lichen

A composite organism composed of fungal and algal cells. The fungus is the dominant symbiont. Mycologists think of fungi as farming the algae.

Representative Page: #062: lichens 1

Related Terms: composite organism, fungus, symbiosis

lichenized

A fungus that has evolved to grow as a lichen.

Representative Page: #062: lichens 2

Related Terms: fungus, lichen

lignicolous

Decomposing wood.

lignin

A brown, crumbly compound that is an important structural component of wood.

Representative Page: #088: wood rot

Related Terms: brown rot, cellulose, white rot

loupe

A small magnifying glass, usually 8x – 20x, that mycologists use to examine specimens in the field. Also called a hand lens.

Related Term: hand lens

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~ M ~

macroscopic

Able to be seen with the unaided eye.

Related Term: microscopic

mantle

The thick layer of hyphae surrounding a mycorrhizal root.

Representative Page: #075: ectomycorrhizae

Related Terms: arbutoid mycorrhiza, ectomycorrhiza, ericoid mycorrhiza, hypha

margin

The edge of the pileus.

Related Terms: mushroom, pileus

mating type

The set of a fungus’ genes that determines whether or not it can successsfully mate with another fungus of the same species.

Representative Page: #085: Schizophyllum commune

Related Term: fungus

medulla

The interior part of a lichen composed of loosely woven fungal hyphae. Primarily gives support and structure to the lichen and is sometimes directly fixed to the substrate.

Representative Page: #062: lichens 1

Related Terms: cortex, hypha, lichen, substrate

meiosis

The process of sexual cell division. The daughter cells have half the number of chromosomes as the parent cells and genes have been exchanged.

Related Term: mitosis

meiospore

A spore produced through meiosis (sexual).

Related Terms: meiosis, spore

melanin

A dark-colored compound that protects cells from damage by ultraviolet light.

Melzer’s reagent

A solution containing iodine and other chemicals used to selectively stain certain fungi under the microscope. Reactions to Melzer’s reagent are used to identify mushrooms.

Related Terms: amyloid, dextrinoid, inamyloid, mushroom

mesoperidium

In a peridium composed of multiple layers, the mesoperidium is the middle layer.

Representative Page: #044: earthstars

Related Terms: endoperidium, exoperidium, peridium

microscopic

Unable to be seen with the unaided eye. You need to use a microscope.

Related Term: macroscopic

mitosis

The process of asexual cell division. The daughter cells have exactly the same chromosomes as the parent cell.

Related Term: meiosis

mitospore

A spore produced through mitosis (asexual).

Related Terms: mitosis, spore

MMH

Monomethylhydrazine.

Representative Page: #092: gyromitrin & MMH

Related Term: monomethylhydrazine

monokaryotic

Having one nucleus.

Representative Page: #009: fungal life cycle

Related Terms: dikaryotic, polykaryotic

monomethylhydrazine

A mushroom toxin found primarily in false morels.

Representative Page: #092: gyromitrin & MMH

Related Terms: false morel, gyromitrin, MMH, mushroom

monophyletic

A taxonomic group of organisms that are all descended from a common ancestor.

Related Term: polyphyletic

monotropoid mycorrhiza

A parasitic type of ericaceous mycorrhiza. Monotropoid mycorrhizal fungi provide nutrients and sugars for plants in the genus monotropa but get nothing back.

Representative Page: #077: ericaceous mycorrhizae

Related Terms: arbutoid mycorrhiza, ericaceous mycorrhiza, ericoid mycorrhiza, mycoheterotroph, mycorrhiza

mordant

A chemical that fixes a dye to a substrate. Mordants can change the structures of dyes and may alter their color.

Representative Page: #159: dyeing

morel

An ascomycete mushroom with a hollow stipe and a large, hollow head characterized by well-defined ridges and pits.

Representative Page: #033: morels

Related Terms: ascomycete, false morel, mushroom, stipe, verpa

muscarine

A mushroom toxin primarily found in Inocybe and Clitocybe species.

Representative Page: #094: muscarine

Related Term: mushroom

muscimol

A mushroom toxin that has mild effects on the central nervous system.

Representative Page: #097: ibotenic acid & muscimol

Related Terms: ibotenic acid, mushroom

mushroom

A macroscopic structure that releases sexual spores and is produced by certain fungi.

Related Terms: fruiting body, fungus, macroscopic

mutualism

A symbiosis that benefits both organisms.

Related Terms: commensalism, parasitism, symbiosis

mycelial cord

A loosely-structured bundle of mycelium used by certain fungi to access distant areas and cross nutrient deficient areas.

Related Terms: mycelium, rhizomorph

mycelial threads

Small pieces of mycelium that are attached to the base of the stipe.

Related Terms: base, mycelium, stipe

mycelium

A reticulated network of hyphae.

Representative Page: #004: hyphae

Related Terms: hypha, reticulated

mycobiont

The fungal symbiont in a lichen that provides the structure for the lichen.

Representative Page: #062: lichens 1

Related Terms: lichen, photobiont

mycoheterotroph

A non-fungus organism (usually a plant) that gets its energy by parasitizing fungi.

Representative Page: #112: Monotropa uniflora

Related Terms: heterotroph, mycotroph

mycorrhiza

A (usually) mutualistic association between a fungus and a plant root. The fungus extracts nutrients from the ground and exchanges them for sugars produced by the plant. Plural: mycorrhizae or mycorrhizas. Adjective: mycorrhizal.

Representative Page: #073: mycorrhizae

Related Terms: arbuscular mycorrhiza, arbutoid mycorrhiza, ectomycorrhiza, ericaceous mycorrhiza, ericoid mycorrhiza, fungus, monotropoid mycorrhiza, orchid mycorrhiza

mycosis

A disease caused by a fungus.

Related Term: fungus

mycotoxin

A toxic compound produced by a fungus.

Related Term: fungus

mycotroph

An organism (plant, fungus, or other) that gets its energy by parasitizing fungi.

Representative Page: #150: Asterophora lycoperdoides

Related Terms: fungus, heterotroph, mycoheterotroph

myxomycete

A slime mold.

Representative Page: #053: slime molds

Related Term: slime mold

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oomycete

An organism from the class Oomycota. Oomycetes were once considered to be fungi but have since been moved out of kingdom Fungi.

Representative Page: #054: oomycetes

Related Term: fungus

operculate

Of asci that have a lid covering the pore through which spores are discharged.

Representative Page: #012: ascomycetes

Related Terms: ascus, inoperculate

orchid mycorrhiza

A mycorrhiza formed with plants in the family Orchidaceae. When young, the orchid is completely parasitic on the fungus.

Representative Page: #076: orchid mycorrhizae

Related Terms: mycoheterotroph, mycorrhiza

orellanine

A mushroom toxin found in a few Cortinarius species.

Representative Page: #093: orellanine

Related Term: mushroom

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parasitism

A symbiosis where one organism benefits at the expense of the other.

Related Terms: commensalism, mutualism, symbiosis

parenthosome

A membrane with many tiny pores that surrounds the dolipore septum.

Representative Page: #004: hyphae

Related Terms: dolipore septum, septum

partial veil

A membrane that covers the gills of developing agarics.

Related Terms: agaric, gills, lamellae, universal veil

patches

Large remnants of the univeral veil found on the surface of the pileus and are not attached to the pileus.

Representative Page: #051: Amanita phalloides

Related Terms: pileus, warts

peridiole

The disc-shaped structures containing spores found in bird’s nest fungi. Often called eggs.

Representative Page: #043: bird’s nests

Related Terms: bird’s nest, egg, spore

peridium

A protective layer of fungal tissue found in the gasteromycetes.

Representative Page: #044: earthstars

Related Terms: endoperidium, exoperidium, gasteromycete, mesoperidium

perithecium

A flask-shaped structure with a pore at the top produced by certain ascomycetes. Asci line the interior surface of perithecia. When asci are ready to release their spores, they grow up to the pore at the top of the perithecium and eject the spores.

Representative Page: #062: lichens 1

Related Terms: ascomycete, ascospore, ascus

photobiont

The algal symbiont in a lichen that produces its own food through photosynthesis.

Related Terms: lichen, mycobiont, photosynthesis

photosynthesis

The process of converting sunlight into chemical energy.

phylogeny

A diagram showing the evolutionary relationships between organisms.

pileus

The upper surface of a mushroom that does not produce spores and serves to protect the hymenium. Also called a cap.

Related Terms: cap, hymenium, mushroom

plaque

A biofilm with a highly resistant protective layer.

Related Term: biofilm

plasmodial slime mold

A single-celled slime mold that can grow very large. When ready to produce spores, it moves to the surface of its substrate and forms a macroscopic fuiting body.

Representative Page: #053: slime molds

Related Terms: macroscopic, slime mold, substrate

ploidy

How many sets of chromosomes an organism or cell has.

Related Terms: diploid, haploid, polyploid

podetium

A long, roughly cylindrical, upright structure produced by a lichen. Plural: podetia.

Representative Page: #171: reindeer lichen

Related Terms: fruticose, lichen

polykaryotic

Having multiple nuclei.

Representative Page: #009: fungal life cycle

Related Terms: dikaryotic, monokaryotic

polyphyletic

A taxonomic group of organisms that are descended from multiple evolutionary lineages. Polyphyletic taxa are slowly being divided into multiple monophyletic taxa of the same rank.

Related Term: monophyletic

polyploid

An organism or cell with multiple sets of chromosomes.

Related Terms: diploid, haploid, ploidy

polypore

A basidiomycete mushroom with a hymenium covered in pores, excluding the boletes.

Representative Page: #030: polypores

Related Terms: basidiomycete, bolete, hymenium, mushroom, pores

pores

Pores are tubes set into the hymenium of certain basidiomycetes. Pores produce spores on their inner surfaces and are oriented perpendicular to the ground so that spores can drop into air currents below. Pores can be circular or angular.

Representative Page: #030: polypores

Related Terms: angular, basidiomycete, hymenium, mushroom

potassium hydroxide

A solution of potassium hydroxide is used to identify mushrooms. A drop of the solution is placed on a mushroom and any color changes are observed.

Related Terms: KOH, mushroom

primary host

The host on which a rust fungus never produces sexual spores.

Representative Page: #130: rusts

Related Term: rust

psilocin

A psychoactive mushroom toxin.

Representative Page: #098: psilocybin & psilocin

Related Terms: mushroom, psilocybin

psilocybin

A psychoactive mushroom toxin.

Representative Page: #098: psilocybin & psilocin

Related Terms: mushroom, psilocin

psychrophilic

Cold-loving.

Representative Page: #026: white nose syndrome

puffball

A basidiomycete mushroom that produces spores internally. The peridium develops one or more distinct pores through which spores escape when raindrops land on the mushroom.

Representative Page: #041: puffballs

Related Terms: basidiomycete, earthball, earthstar, false puffball, mushroom, peridium

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resting spore

A thick-walled spore designed to survive long periods of adverse conditions.

Related Terms: chlamydospore, spore

reticulated

A network that forms links to itself in multiple directions, as a net.

Related Terms: reticulation, reticulum

reticulation

A network of ridges found on the stipes of certain boletes. Reticulation develops because some pores end up on the stipe as the bolete mushroom grows. The pores are then stretched out as the stipe elongates.

Representative Page: #108: Heimioporus betulina

Related Terms: bolete, mushroom, pores, reticulated, reticulum, stipe

reticulum

A net-like pattern.

Related Terms: reticulated, reticulation

rhizine

A short outgrowth of the lower cortex of a lichen that is used to anchor the lichen to its substrate.

Representative Page: #062: lichens 1

Related Terms: cortex, lichen, substrate

rhizomorph

A highly-structured bundle of mycelium used by certain fungi (especially those in the genus Armillaria) to access distant areas and cross nutrient deficient areas.

Representative Page: #001: Armillaria solidipes

Related Terms: mycelial cord, mycelium

ring

see anulus.

Related Terms: annulus, ring zone

ring zone

A small area on the stipe covered in the tiny remnants of the partial veil. The ring zone is often not visible until spores collect on the partial veil fragments.

Related Terms: annulus, partial veil, ring, stipe

rust

A plant pathogenic fungus from the basidiomycete order Pucciniales. The term rust funus comes from the characteristic, reddish to orangish spores these fungi produce.

Representative Page: #130: rusts

Related Terms: basidiomycete, smut

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sac fungus

An ascomycete, so called because of the sac-like asci.

Representative Page: #012: ascomycetes

Related Terms: ascomycete, ascus

saprobe

An organism that gets its energy by decaying dead organic matter. Also called a saprophyte.

Representative Page: #011: fungi

Related Term: saprophyte

saprophyte

An organism that gets energy from decaying dead organic material. Also called a saprobe.

Representative Page: #011: fungi

Related Term: saprobe

sclerotium

A food storage structure produced by certain fungi.

Related Term: fungus

septate

Having septa.

Representative Page: #004: hyphae

Related Term: septum

septum

The wall that separates one fungal cell from another. Plrual: septa.

Representative Page: #004: hyphae

Related Term: hypha

sexual reproduction

See meiosis.

Related Term: meiosis

shelf fungus

A mushroom that juts out horizontally from a log, usually with the widest part of the mushroom directly attached to the log. Also called a bracket fungus.

Representative Page: #070: Ganoderma applanatum

Related Terms: bracket fungus, mushroom

short-gill

A gill that runs from the margin part of the way to the stipe. At the stipe end of the gill, the short-gill terminates between two gills. Short-gills never meet the stipe and are not considered when assessing gill-stipe attachment.

Related Terms: gills, lamellae, margin, stipe

slime mold

An organism that lives as an amoeba and then produces a mold-like fruiting structure. The two main groups of slime molds are cellular slime molds and plasmodial slime molds.

Representative Page: #053: slime molds

Related Terms: cellular slime mold, plasmodial slime mold

smut

A plant pathogenic fungus from the basidiomycete class Ustilaginomycetes. The term smut fungus comes from the characteristic, dirt-like spores produced by fungi in this group.

Representative Page: #131: smuts

Related Terms: basidiomycete, rust

soft rot

A type of wood rot caused by certain fungi that primarily decompose the chemicals that bind lignin and cellulose together, leaving both the lignin and cellulose.

Representative Page: #088: wood rot

Related Terms: brown rot, cellulose, fungus, lignin, white rot

soredia

Small, powdery bundles produced by lichens containing mycobiont and photobiont cells. Soredia are designed to be blown by the wind so the lichen can colonize new areas.

Representative Page: #062: lichens 1

Related Terms: isidia, lichen, mycobiont, photobiont

spermagonium

A structure that produces spermatia.

Representative Page: #130: rusts

Related Terms: rust, spermatium

spermatium

A haploid spore produced by rust fungi on the alternate host that is designed to mate with another fungus of the same species. Plural: spermatia.

Representative Page: #130: rusts

Related Terms: alternate host, haploid, rust, spermagonium, spore

splash cup

The mechanism by which peridioles are discharged from bird’s nest fungi. Raindrops fall in the cup and the splashing action flings out a peridiole.

Representative Page: #043: bird’s nests

Related Terms: bird’s nest, peridiole

sporangiophore

A microscopic structure that produces sporangia.

Related Terms: microscopic, sporangiospore, sporangium

sporangiospore

A sexual or asexual cell produced by a sporangium.

Related Term: sporangium

sporangium

A microscopic structure that produces sexual or asexual spores internally. Asci are never called sporangia.

Related Terms: ascus, conidiophore, microscopic, sporangiophore, spore

spore

A cell produced by a fungus designed for sexual or asexual reproduction and dispersal.

Related Terms: asexual reproduction, fungus

spore print

The colorful pattern obtained when the hymenium of a mushroom is placed over a piece of paper and the spores are allowed to drop onto the paper. Spore prints are used to asses the color of a mushroom’s spores en masse.

Related Terms: hymenium, mushroom, spore

squamules

Scale-like protrusions on a mushroom surface that are attached to that surface.

Representative Page: #086: Polyporus squamosus

Related Terms: mushroom, warts

squamulose

Having or being composed of squamules.

Related Term: squamules

staining

A color change that happens in a mushroom through age or damage. Often used interchangably with bruising.

Related Terms: bruising, mushroom

sterigma

A thin structure on top of a basidium upon which a basidiospore is produced. Plural: sterigmata.

Representative Page: #013: basidiomycetes

Related Terms: basidiospore, basidium

stinkhorn

A basidiomycete mushroom that produces a stinky, spore-laden slime. The slime attracts flies and other insects, which spread the spores.

Representative Page: #040: stinkhorns

Related Terms: basidiomycete, egg, mushroom

stipe

The stalk of a mushroom that lifts the hymenium above its substrate. In botany (fungi were once classified as plants), “stem” refers only to supportive structures with vascular tissue. The supportive stalk of a mushroom does not have vascular tissue, so it is called a stipe.

Related Terms: hymenium, mushroom, substrate

substrate

The surface upon which something grows.

succession

The process by which are first to arrive in a newly exposed area are gradually displaced by other species as the environment becomes older and more stable.

Related Term: climax species

symbiosis

Two organisms living closely together.

Related Terms: commensalism, mutualism, parasitism

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teeth

Teeth are conical extensions of the hymenium found in certain basidiomycetes. Teeth produce spores on their outer surfaces and are oriented perpendicular to the ground so that spores can drop into air currents below.

Representative Page: #031: toothed fungi

Related Terms: basidiomycete, hymenium, mushroom

teliospore

A diploid resting spore produced by rust fungi on the primary host that is designed to survive the winter.

Representative Page: #130: rusts

Related Terms: diploid, primary host, resting spore, rust, spore, telium

telium

A structure that produces teliospores. Plural: telia.

Representative Page: #130: rusts

Related Terms: rust, teliospore

terrestrial

Growing on the ground, not from buried wood.

thallus

The main body of a fungus.

Related Terms: fungus, mycelium

tinsel flagellum

A flagellum enclosed by a membrane that is decorated with short, lateral projections. Tinsel flagella are found in oomycetes, but not in true fungi.

Representative Page: #054: oomycetes

Related Terms: flagellum, oomycete, whiplash flagellum

toothed fungus

A basidiomycete mushroom with a hymenium covered in teeth.

Representative Page: #031: toothed fungi

Related Terms: basidiomycete, hymenium, mushroom, teeth

transversely septate basidia

Basidia produced by certain jelly fungi and rust fungi that are separated into four cells by septa. When viewed from the side, the septa divide the basidium into a hypha-like chain of cells.

Representative Page: #048: jelly fungi

Related Terms: basidium, cruciate septate basidia, hypha, jelly fungus, rust, septum, tuning fork basidia

trehalose

The primary sugar used by fungi to store energy.

Representative Page: #011: fungi

Related Term: fungus

truffle

A subterranean ascomycete mushroom that produces spores internally and spreads its spores by using scents to attract mammals.

Representative Page: #047: truffles

Related Terms: ascomycete, false truffle, mushroom

tuning fork basidia

Basidia produced by certain jelly fungi that are shaped like a tuning fork (a long, cylindrical section at the base that splits into two long, parallel, cylindrical sections) and produce only two basidia.

Representative Page: #011: fungi

Related Terms: basidium, cruciate septate basidia, jelly fungus, septum, transversely septate basidia

turgor pressure

The pressure of water pushing outward against a cell wall.

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universal veil

A membrane on the outside of the developing mushroom that surrounds the entire mushroom.

Related Terms: mushroom, partial veil

urediniospore

A dikaryotic spore produced by rust fungi on the primary host that is designed to infect the primary host.

Representative Page: #130: rusts

Related Terms: dikaryotic, primary host, rust, spore, uredinium

uredinium

A structure that produces urediniospores.

Representative Page: #130: rusts

Related Terms: rust, urediniospore

VAM

Vesicular-Arbuscular Mycorrhiza.

Representative Page: #074: arbuscular mycorrhizae

Related Terms: arbuscular mycorrhiza, vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhiza

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vegetative growth

Growth without producing reproductive structures. During this time, the organism is focused on obtaining nutrients and physically growing.

verpa

An ascomycete mushroom with a head that looks like a true morel but is only attached at the very top of the stipe.

Representative Page: #033: morels

Related Terms: ascomycete, false morel, morel, mushroom, stipe

vesicle

In AM, vesicles are enlarged hyphal structures formed inside mycorrhizal plant root cells.

Representative Page: #074: arbuscular mycorrhizae

Related Terms: AM, arbuscular mycorrhiza, arbuscule

vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhiza

See arbuscular mycorrhiza.

Representative Page: #074: arbuscular mycorrhizae

Related Term: arbuscular mycorrhiza

volva

The sac-like remains of the universal veil surrounding the base of the stipe.

Representative Page: #050: Destroying Angels

Related Terms: base, stipe, universal veil, volval sac

volval sac

see volva.

Representative Page: #050: Destroying Angels

Related Term: volva

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warts

Bumps on the pileus that are not attached to the pileus and are remnants of the universal veil.

Representative Page: #069: Amanita muscaria 1

Related Terms: pileus, squamules, universal veil

whiplash flagellum

A flagellum enclosed by a membrane that is undecorated. A whiplash flagellum propels its cell forward by moving side to side in a sine wave fasion. Motile fungi are propelled by whiplash flagella.

Representative Page: #014: chytrids

Related Terms: flagellum, fungus, whiplash flagellum

white rot

A type of wood rot caused by certain fungi that primarily decompose lignin, leaving the white, stringy cellulose.

Representative Page: #088: wood rot

Related Terms: brown rot, cellulose, fungus, lignin

woronin body

A spherical organelle near the pore of a septum that moves into the pore and seals it if the adjacent cell is damaged.

Representative Page: #004: hyphae

Related Terms: hypha, septum

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yeast

A single-celled fungus.

Representative Page: #003: yeast vs. hyphae

Related Terms: fungus, hypha

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zonate

With distinct zones of color or texture.

zone of demarcation

A black line of concentrated proteins deposited by two competing fungi when they come into contact with one another.

Related Term: fungus

zoospore

A motile spore.

Representative Page: #014: chytrids

Related Terms: chytrid, oomycete, spore

zygo

Short for zygomycete.

Representative Page: #016: zygomycetes

Related Term: zygomycete

zygomycete

A fungus in the former division Zygomycota.

Representative Page: #016: zygomycetes

Related Terms: division, fungus

zygospore

A sexual spore produced by zygomycetes.

Representative Page: #016: zygomycetes

Related Terms: spore, zygomycete

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